By David C. Luckham, Friedrich W. von Henke, Bernd Krieg-Brueckner, Olaf Owe
This reference guide of ANNA is one other quantity addressed to the ADA group. ANNA is a language extension of ADA to incorporate amenities for officially specifying the meant habit of ADA courses. it's designed to satisfy a perceived have to increase ADA with unique machine-processable annotations in order that good confirmed formal tools of specification and documentation should be utilized to ADA courses. the present ANNA layout contains annotations of all ADA constructs other than tasking. related extensions for formal specification may be made to different Algol-like languages equivalent to Pascal, PL/1, Concurrent Pascal, and Modula; basically, those extensions will be subsets of ANNA. The layout of ANNA used to be undertaken from the start with 4 valuable issues: 1. developing annotations can be effortless for the ADA programmer and will count up to attainable on notation and ideas of ADA. 2. ANNA may still own language good points which are standard within the specification and documentation of courses. three. ANNA may still offer a framework in which a few of the demonstrated theories of officially specifying courses can be utilized to ADA. four. Annotations may be both well matched for various attainable purposes in the course of the existence cycle of a software. Such functions contain not just trying out, debugging and formal verification of a complete application, but additionally specification of software components throughout the previous levels of necessities research and software design.
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Extra resources for ANNA A Language for Annotating Ada Programs
Whether A has received a value, if it is an object of a scalar type; or whether all components of A are fully defined, if A is an object of a composite type. 4. 2 for access types. 3 ANNOTATIONS OF TYPE AND SUBTYPE DECLARATIONS 28 ANNA REFERENCE MANUAL FOFevery type l-, the following attribute is defined: T'INITIAL denotes the initial value given by default to objects of type T. The initial value is the default initial value or default expression as given in the (sub)type definition of T, or null for access types.
Elaboration of annotations may involve evaluation of arbitrarily complex initial expressions, just as elaboration of Ada declarations may involve arbitrarily complex computations. 5); thus elaboration of annotations, like evaluation of Anna expressions in general, may in some cases depend on formal reasoning. 1 4 DEFINEDNESS OF'EXPRESSIONS The value of an Ada expression may not be defined, for example, if the expression contains an uninitialized variable, or its evaluation raises an exception or never terminates.
Anna does not require successive constraints to be compatible. However, an inconsistency will be detected by verification or runtime consistency checking if a value is computed that is constrained by two constraints and satisfies only one of them.. Example of incompatible successive subtype annotations: --I s u b t y p e EVEN is INTEGER; w h e r e X : EVEN => X m o d 2 = O; ODD_EVEN is EVEN; w h e r e X : ODD_EVEN => X mod 2 = 1; subtype --I ---- ---- No value can satisfy the c o m b i n e d constraints on EVEN and ODD_EVEN; thus the set of values of subtype ODD_EVEN is empty.