By V.A. Lefebvre
In this booklet moral structures are defined within the language of arithmetic. as a rule arithmetic is believed to be a technology of volume. certainly, manipulation of amounts constitutes a lot of arithmetic. effortless utilized arithmetic bargains with reckoning and dimension, the place concrete amounts are items of realization, corresponding to counting sheep or weighing corno however the operations on those amounts are played with the aid of symbols, from which concrete referents were 'abstracted out': three + five = eight whether the symbols stand for numbers of sheep or hundreds corno therefore, the 1st precept that indicates the facility of arithmetic is abstraction. it really is one ofthe 3 pillars on which the edifice of arithmetic rests. one other pillar is precision. mostly, guy communicates by means of phrases. W ords serve verbal exchange to the level that they check with issues, occasions, states of affairs, emotions of the speaker, and so forth. those are the meanings attributed to phrases. communique is profitable to the level that the meanings coded upon phrases via the speaker correspond to the meanings decoded through the hearer. As is weH recognized, the measure ofthis correspondence varies significantly in numerous contexts of discourse and with the again grounds or attitudes of the audio system and hearers. arithmetic is a language within which the meanings ofthe symbols (the 'words' ofthis language) are completely distinct. This precision is completed by way of abstraction. summary phrases are outlined by means of their relatives to different phrases and via not anything else.
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Extra resources for Algebra of Conscience: A Comparative Analysis of Western and Soviet Ethical Systems
The symbol a in theformula A = a W will becalled the root ofindividual A; thus, individual A 'consists' of two parts: a root and an inner world. We will call the transformations of A + B into B + A and of A. B into B. A as weIl as the reverse of these commutative transformations. We will call two formulae semantically equivalent if they can be transformed one into the other only by commutative transformations of their parts. We will designate semantic equivalence by '==' and reserve the sign '=' for Boolean or logical equivalence.
We consider these differences to be the first argument in support of the hypo thesis that different ethical systems are realized in the Uni ted States and in the Soviet Union. One might suppose that the reason for the above differences is that a Soviet individual in the described experiment uses not his moral cognition, but only his pragmatic orientation. However, analysis ofthe moral norms ofSoviet culture (described in Chapter XVI), leads us to think that the choices of Soviet subjects are predetermined by their moral cognition.
We say that an individual has a correct image ofhimselfifthe root ofhis image of hirnself is equal to the root of the individual, and we say that an individual has an incorrect image of hirnself if the root of his image of hirnself is not equal to the root of the individual. Thus, individual a A • B has a correct image ofhimselfif Ais equal to a or to a W , and this individual has an incorrect image of hirnself if A is equal to ä or to ä W • 18 CHAPTER IV Consider the situation. Let Al == aA2 • B2 and B l == bW '.