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Dmin can be obtained from Eq. 3 lb 3. From the basic drag expression, which can be written by use of Eq. 9 a value in agreement with calculations above. 4. The calculated relationships for Dmin and for VDmin can be read directly off the graph. Also shown are induced drag Di ϭ 2kW 2 ␳0V E2 S and the parasite drag Dp ϭ 1 ␳ V2C S 2 0 E D0 for a weight of 10,000 lb. The influence of increased weight is also shown for 12,000 and 14,000 lb. 3 Flight Envelope: Vmax, Vmin Returning to the original purpose of this chapter, to determine the maximum and minimum velocities, it is necessary to consider the thrustdrag or power balance of the aircraft.

The relative significance of these two terms of Eq. 21 is shown in Fig. 1, where a typical total drag curve is drawn for a parabolic drag polar at sea-level altitude (␳ ϭ ␳0). The effect of increase in altitude (decrease in ␳) is also shown, which shifts the total drag curves right for constant W, n, S, and CD0. Increasing W, n, S, and CD0 increases the drag and curves shift upward. Thus, the drag curve depends on five parameters, out of which only the reference area S will usually remain constant during the flight.

3 MAXIMUM VELOCITY AND CEILING 33 b. The velocity (EAS) at minimum drag can be found from Eq. 023 1/4 ft sec This is also VDmin (TAS) at sea level. 497 sec c. The minimum thrust can also be found in a number of ways: 1. From Em, and for steady, level flight (W/T) ϭ (L/D) one finds from Eq. 16 which is independent of altitude. 2. Dmin can be obtained from Eq. 3 lb 3. From the basic drag expression, which can be written by use of Eq. 9 a value in agreement with calculations above. 4. The calculated relationships for Dmin and for VDmin can be read directly off the graph.

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