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Additional info for Aerodynamic Design of Transport Aircraft
Filling the “empty shell” Once the aerodynamic shape is determined detail design is performed on: t Cabin and cockpit arrangement t All aircraft systems t Aircraft structure This is where the more abstract results from the previous parts of the aircraft design process are converted into hardware. This last part of the aircraft design process is the most labour intensive. In 1995 at Fokker for example, 15 persons worked on the preliminary design of an aircraft and 45 on the aerodynamic design.
However, today, even small companies can afford to buy and use these codes. For example, the Brazilian aircraft manufacturer Embraer has used Navier-Stokes codes in designing its regional jets. 165"5*0/48*5)4&1"3"5&%'-08t 9 Computations with separated flow Computations with separated flow find application in two main categories at present. The first of the applications is on wings with sharp-swept leading edges. These wings generate leading-edge vortices, which produce additional lift; however, this comes at the expense of additional drag.
When a given number is ascribed to the zero-lift drag coefficient CD0 or to the wing weight this means that the design specialists need to achieve this level of drag or wing weight. In preliminary design these numbers are not realized, they are given as minimum goals. Often the goals set by the preliminary design are too optimistic. Modifying the design is very costly, compensation will have to be paid and customers may be lost. An aircraft designer should develop a good feeling for what is realizable.