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After the forming, the binder system must be removed by thermal treatment. To compact the piezo grain structure one sinters the piezoceramic actuator at 1300°C. Next process steps were the metallization, which is done by sputtering and polarization with 4 kV per one millimetre thickness at 90°C. While the thermal disposal of the binder and the sintering process the actuator shrinks. This allowance must be reminded while designing the cavity for the actuator. The ceramic injection moulding process can be used for all of the actuators in the displacement amplification systems getting geometric optimized actuators.
1-19, ISBN 0027820 Neirman, S. M. (1988). The Curie point temperature of Ba(Zr1-xZrx)O3 solid solutions, Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 23, No. 11 (November 1988), pp. 3973-3980, ISBN 00222461 Takahashi, H. , (2006). Piezoelectric properties of BaTiO3 ceramics with high performance fabricated by microwave sintering. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 45, No. 9B (September 2006), pp. 7405-7408, ISSN 00214922 Takahashi, H. , (2008). Considerations for BaTiO3 ceramics with high piezoelectric properties fabricated by microwave sintering method.
Each actuator according to Figure 5 possesses one linear motor joint (T) and two revolution joints (R). The linear joints apply 5 restrictions to the movements, thus the joint possess one degree of freedom. Their number p l5 is equal to the number of the actuators: pl5 = m . (15) The revolution joints of the parallel structures of Table 3 can apply different number of restriction j = 1…5, defining the degrees of freedom of the device using the well known equation: 5 h = 6 ⋅ n − ∑ j ⋅ Pj (16) j=1 where n is the number of all mobile links and Pj is the number of all kinematics joints of class j.