Download PDF by Geckeler K.E., Nishide H. (eds.): Advanced Nanomaterials

By Geckeler K.E., Nishide H. (eds.)

During this first complete compilation of evaluation chapters in this scorching subject, greater than 30 specialists from worldwide supply in-depth chapters on their particular parts of workmanship, overlaying such crucial subject matters as:Block Copolymer platforms, Nanofibers and NanotubesHelical Polymer-Based Supramolecular FilmsSynthesis of Inorganic NanotubesGold Nanoparticles and Carbon NanotubesRecent Advances in steel Nanoparticle-Attached ElectrodesOxidation Catalysis through Nanoscale Gold, Silver, and CopperConcepts in Self-AssemblyNanocompositesAmphiphilic Poly(Oxyalkylene)-AminesMesoporous AluminaNanoceramics for scientific ApplicationsEcological Toxicology of Engineered Carbon NanoparticlesMolecular ImprintingNear-Field Raman Imaging of Nanostructures and DevicesFullerene-Rich NanostructuresInteractions of Carbon Nanotubes with BiomoleculesNanoparticle-Cored Dendrimers and Hyperbranched PolymersNanostructured Organogels through Molecular Self-AssemblyStructural DNA NanotechnologyWith its assurance of all such vital parts as self-assembly, polymeric fabrics, bionanomaterials, nanotubes, photonic and environmental points, this is often a necessary reference for fabrics scientists, engineers, chemists, physicists and biologists wishing to realize an in-depth wisdom of the entire disciplines concerned.

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Name Structure Method of removal Reference(s) Polystyrene Reactive ion etching [123, 124] Poly(perfluorooctyl ethyl methacrylate) Reactive ion etching [125, 126] as gallium arsenide can be patterned, opening up new avenues for the production of quantum dot (QD) structures [128]. Poly(Styrene-block-Methyl Methacrylate) Poly(styrene-block-methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) has been the workhorse of the field of BCP lithography for several reasons. First, it is relatively simple to produce using anionic polymerization techniques, and is commercially available [129].

1 Block Copolymers as Useful Nanomaterials advantage to anionic polymerization is the limited range of monomers available for synthesis. Although the standard styrenes, methacrylates, butadiene, isoprene, ethylene oxide, vinylpyridines, and amino acids can all be synthesized using this technique, monomers with reactive functional groups cannot be used because they will interfere with the anionic chain end. Such monomers must therefore be protected before synthesis and then later deprotected. In some cases, such as the polymerization of acrylates, the reactions must be carried out at very low temperatures (−78 °C) in order to avoid terminating side reactions such as intrachain cyclization or “backbiting”, caused by the reaction of the anionic center with a carbonyl group on the monomer.

Reprinted with permission from Ref. [154]; © 2006, American Chemical Society. 1 Structure Direction Using Block Copolymer Scaffolds Besides the potential uses of BCPs as lithographic materials, their inherent microphase separation and chemical dissimilarity of the blocks also leads to other applications. For example, BCPs can serve as structure-directing agents for the formation of mesoporous monolithic materials through phase-selective chemistry. Monolithic nanoporous structures have a large surface : volume ratio, which means that there is a large amount of functionalizable surface area within a small volume of material.

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