By Oscar Swan
A Concise Grammar of Polish is meant to be used as a supplementary reference textual content at the starting and intermediate degrees of Polish language examine. it's also compatible to be used because the basic textual content in a path on Polish morphology (although routines would have to be supplied by means of the instructor).
Phonological and morphological methods are given particular remedy and representation all through. Sections on declension and conjugation goal at an entire description of all typical and such a lot abnormal phenomena. Descriptions of types are liberally supplemented with feedback touching on derivation, utilization, and ameliorations among Polish and English.
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Extra resources for A concise grammar of Polish
Orzechowska (1984:227-8) attempted an innovative scheme that excluded gender. It later was criticized for unnecessarily complicating the description of nouns (Gruszczyński 1987:45) and Orzechowska's later edition (1999:270-3) went back to a more traditional gender scheme. The present description uses gender as its starting point, based on the criteria of simplicity and pedagogical effectiveness. 39 A. Masculine nouns. Masc. I: Basic type: masculine nouns with -Ø ending in nominative singular. g.
Kocioł 'cauldron (nom. )'~kot/ła 'gen. ). Since the occurrence of this alternation is often unpredictable, morphophonemic transcriptions often note it with a device such as a slash (/), which will be the method used in this description. Once the slash appears and its location is known, it is usually possible to predict whether the slash position will be realized by the vowel alternant /e/ or the zero alternant (simply / between consonants). In the case of more than one slash, one starts the process of calculating vowels and zeroes at the end of the word.
Plural kraje/noże = Npl. krajów/noży krajach/nożach krajom/nożom krajami/nożami = Npl. Animate: paw ‘peacock’/jeż ’hedgehog’ N A G L D I V Singular -Ø = Gsg. -a -u -owi -em = Lsg. Plural -e = Npl. -y/-i, -ów -ach -om -ami = Npl. Singular N paw/jeż A = Gsg. G pawia/jeża L pawiu/jeżu D pawiowi/jeżowi I pawiem/jeżem V = Lsg. Plural pawie/jeże = Npl. pawi/jeży pawiach/jeżach pawiom/jeżom pawiami/jeżami = Npl. Virile: nauczyciel ‘teacher’/pisarz ‘author’ N A Singular -Ø = Gsg. Plural Singular -e N nauczyciel/pisarz = Gpl.