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They analysed and evaluated 24 different waste management scenarios. They concluded that “fuel consumed during the collection, transport and waste sorting stages makes a contribution to the impact in all the categories that were analyzed, since there is not any avoided environmental burden attributable to those processes”. Moreover they conclude that “recycling allows the pollution burden to be avoided for all impact categories, since it avoids the consumption of virgin material according to the substitution rate of 1:1; the contribution made by landfilling depends on whether it is carried out with or without energy recovery […]”.
Cut-off is a solution to the problem that the system is theoretically infinitely large. To produce a TV, we need machines, and these machines are produced by machines, and these machines in turn need machines, etc. But of course we have an 2 Introduction to Life Cycle Assessment 25 intuitive idea that some very distant upstream processes will be quite unimportant. This means that we will cut off certain inputs: although we know that something is needed, and we sometimes even know how much is needed, we do not go into the trouble of specifying how these inputs are produced.
Producing, using and disposing products create the burden to the environment. Therefore, these processes assume a central position in LCA. The essential feature of LCA in which it distinguishes itself from the analysis of an industrial or agricultural process is that it connects different unit process into a system. A flow diagram is a graphical representation of the system of connected unit processes. 3 shows a fragment of such a flow diagram. g. TV production is upstream connected to semiconductor production.